Medieval History Medieval history is a broad term covering the period of European history from the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 CE to the beginning of the Renaissance in the mid–14th century. During this period, Europe underwent a transformation from a decentralized and rural society to a more unified and urbanized one. This period is marked by the establishment of powerful states and the growth of commerce and trade. It also saw the spread of Christianity and the development of the feudal system. Major events include the Crusades, the Black Death, and the Hundred Years War.