Indian Geography for UPSC & State PCS
Indian Geography is an important topic for the UPSC & State PCS exams. It covers a wide range of topics including India’s physical geography, climate, geography of the Indian Ocean, mountain ranges, rivers, lakes, and other natural resources. It also covers the historical, political, economic, and social geography of India. Physical Geography: India is a large subcontinent with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq km. It is surrounded by the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and Bay of Bengal on its three sides. India is divided into four major physical regions – the Northern Mountains, the Central Plateau, the Great Plains and the Peninsular Plateau. The Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world, form India’s northern border. Other mountain ranges include the Vindhyas and the Satpuras. The Thar Desert is located in the north–west and the Deccan Plateau is in the south. India also has an extensive coastline of over 7,500 km.
Climate: India has a tropical climate, with hot and humid summers and mild winters. The climate varies from region to region, with the northern and central parts of the country generally having a more extreme climate than the south. Geography: India is the seventh largest country in the world by area, covering an area of 3,287,263 square km. It is bordered by the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Indian Ocean to the south, Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. The country is divided into 28 states and 8 union territories, and is home to a number of diverse topographical features, including the Himalayan Mountains, the Thar Desert, the Western Ghats, and the Indo–Gangetic Plains. Rivers: India is home to some of the world’s most important river systems, including the Ganges, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Narmada, and Tapti. These rivers and their tributaries provide water for irrigation, drinking, and other uses, and also serve as important sources of hydroelectric power.